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中美侵犯知识产权刑事处罚比较(二)

发布日期:2020-07-07 点击量:1461次 作者:金朋朋 来源:浙江星韬律师事务所
二、美国法律资源 
美国关于知识产权的刑事法律规定主要在《美国法典》(Unite Stated Code)第17章、18章、47章中,以及《新千年数字版权法》(Digital Millennium Copyright Act),《经济间谍法》(Economic Espionage Act);量刑方面主要参照《美国量刑指南》(United States Sentencing Guideline )。 
侵犯商标类犯罪规定在《美国法典》第18章(18 U.S.C. §2320),刑事版权侵权犯罪规定在《美国法典》第17章和第18章[17 U.S.C.§506(a)& 18 U.S.C.§2319],买卖伪造的标识(18 U.S.C.§2318),未经授权录制实况音乐演出的行为也规定为犯罪(Trafficking in Recording of Live Musical Performance, 18U.S.C.§2319A),《美国法典》第47章还对未经授权截击、使用或者帮助截击、接受使用卫星电视电缆的行为规定为犯罪。有关盗窃商业秘密处(Theft of Trade Secrets)和经济间谍(Economic Espionage)犯罪规定在《美国法典》第18章(18 U.S.C.§1832&1831) 。 
《美国法典》对侵犯知识产权犯罪的刑罚规定比较严厉,商标类犯罪和版权类犯罪的刑罚最高都可以判到10年监禁,对再犯者的处罚基本都是加倍;罚金的力度也很大。 
1. 19 C.F.R. §133.42 Infringing copies or phonorecords. 
(f) Referral to the U.S. Attorney. In the event that phonorecords or copies of motion pictures arrive in the U.S. bearing counterfeit labels, Customs officers should consider referring the violation to the U.S. Attorney, Department of Justice, for possible criminal prosecution pursuant to the “Piracy and Counterfeiting Amendments Act of 1982” (18 U.S.C. 2318). This law provides a minimum fine of $25,000 or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, for willful infringement of a copyright for commercial advantage, and a maximum fine of $250,000 or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, where trafficking in counterfeit labels for phonorecords or copies of motion pictures or other audiovisual works is involved. 
2. 18 U.S.C.A. § 2319 Criminal infringement of a copyright 
(a) Any person who violates section 506(a) (relating to criminal offenses) of title 17 shall be punished as provided in subsections (b), (c), and (d) and such penalties shall be in addition to any other provisions of title 17 or any other law.
(b) Any person who commits an offense under section 506(a)(1)(A) of title 17-- 
(1) shall be imprisoned not more than 5 years, or fined in the amount set forth in this title, or both, if the offense consists of the reproduction or distribution, including by electronic means, during any 180-day period, of at least 10 copies or phonorecords, of 1 or more copyrighted works, which have a total retail value of more than $2,500; 
(2) shall be imprisoned not more than 10 years, or fined in the amount set forth in this title, or both, if the offense is a felony and is a second or subsequent offense under subsection (a); and 
(3) shall be imprisoned not more than 1 year, or fined in the amount set forth in this title, or both, in any other case. 
(c) Any person who commits an offense under section 506(a)(1)(B) of title 17-- 
(1) shall be imprisoned not more than 3 years, or fined in the amount set forth in this title, or both, if the offense consists of the reproduction or distribution of 10 or more copies or phonorecords of 1 or more copyrighted works, which have a total retail value of $2,500 or more; 
(2) shall be imprisoned not more than 6 years, or fined in the amount set forth in this title, or both, if the offense is a felony and is a second or subsequent offense under subsection (a); and 
(3) shall be imprisoned not more than 1 year, or fined in the amount set forth in this title, or both, if the offense consists of the reproduction or distribution of 1 or more copies or phonorecords of 1 or more copyrighted works, which have a total retail value of more than $1,000. 
(d) Any person who commits an offense under section 506(a)(1)(C) of title 17--
(1) shall be imprisoned not more than 3 years, fined under this title, or both; 
(2) shall be imprisoned not more than 5 years, fined under this title, or both, if the offense was committed for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial gain; 
(3) shall be imprisoned not more than 6 years, fined under this title, or both, if the offense is a felony and is a second or subsequent offense under subsection (a); and 
(4) shall be imprisoned not more than 10 years, fined under this title, or both, if the offense is a felony and is a second or subsequent offense under paragraph (2).  
三、国际法律资源 
1、TRIPS Agreement 
SECTION 5:CRIMINAL PROCEDURES 
Article 61 Members shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied at least in cases of wilful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale. Remedies available shall include imprisonment and/or monetary fines sufficient to provide a deterrent, consistently with the level of penalties applied for crimes of a corresponding gravity. In appropriate cases, remedies available shall also include the seizure, forfeiture and destruction of the infringing goods and of any materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the commission of the offence. Members may provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied in other cases of infringement of intellectual property rights, in particular where they are committed wilfully and on a commercial scale. 
2、《维也纳条约法公约》 
条约种类:公约 
签订日期:1969.05.23 
生效日期:1980.01.27 
效力状态:现行有效 
第三十一条解释之通则 
一、条约应依其用语按其上下文并参照条约之目的及宗旨所具有之通常意义,善意解释之。 
二、就解释条约而言,上下文除指连同弁言及附件在内之约文外,并应包括: 
(a) 全体当事国间因缔结条约所订与条约有关之任何协定; 
(b) 一个以上当事国因缔结条约所订并经其他当事国接受为条约有关文书之任何文书。 
三、应与上下文一并考虑者尚有: 
(a) 当事国嗣后所订关于条约之解释或其规定之适用之任何协定; 
(b) 嗣后在条约适用方面确定各当事国对条约解释之协定之任何惯例; 
(c) 适用于当事国间关系之任何有关国际法规则。 
四、倘经确定当事国有此原意,条约用语应使其具有特殊意义。 
第三十二条解释之补充资料 为证实由适用第三十一条所得之意义起见,或遇依第三十一条作解释而:
(a) 意义仍属不明或难解;或 
(b) 所获结果显属荒谬或不合理时,为确定其意义起见,得使用解释之补充资料,包括条约之准备工作及缔约之情况在内。 
四、结语 近些年,知识产权的刑事保护问题越来越受到关注。基于中美两国对知识产权刑事保护的理论观念和司法理念存在诸多的差异,中美之间往往就差异问题引起了一些争论,使该问题变得更加复杂。本文试对中美知识产权刑事保护的有关问题进行梳理,以供中美知识产权刑事保护的研究者参考。